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Worms & Germs Map

Disease definitions

CANINE/FELINE

Leptospirosis

Clinical signs consistent with leptospirosis, and

Four-fold rise in antibody titre in dogs that have not been vaccinated in the past 3 months, or,

Gross and microscopic lesions compatible with leptospirosis, with silver or immunostaining, or

Detection of Leptospira spp in urine by darkfield microscopy or in tissues by PCR or silver impregnation straining, or

Isolation of Leptospira spp by culture of urine or tissue, or

Positive immunostaining of urine sediment

 

Lyme disease

Presence of clinical signs attributable to Lyme disease (e.g. arthropathy, nephropathy with no other explanation), and,

Detection of antibodies against B. burgdorferi by SNAP test, ELISA, Western blot or quantitative C6 assay.

 

Heartworm

Positive heartworm antigen test, and;

Confirmation with a different antigen test or detection of microfilaremia

 

Canine parvovirus

Clinical signs consistent with parvovirus infection, and;

Positive fecal antigen ELISA, or

Positive fecal PCR, or

Negative straining EM

 

Canine influenza

Consistent clinical signs (cough +/- fever, depression, nasal discharge, ocular discharge), and;

4 fold increase in serum antibody; or

Positive nasal or pharyngeal swab PCR, or

Positive IFA on lung tissue

 

Rabies

Positive rabies report from evaluation of brain tissue by an accredited laboratory, based on current testing practices.

 

Blastomycosis

Confirmed: Consistent clinical presentation, and,

Cytological findings consistent with blastomycosis, or,

            Detection of Blastomyces DNA by PCR, or,

            Detection of Blastomyces antigen in urine by ELISA.

 

Suspected: Consistent clinical presentation, and radiographic (pulmonary lesions) or histological (cutaneous) findings.

 

Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection

Isolation of S. zooepidemicus from a respiratory tract sample in the presence of signs of upper or lower respiratory tract disease.

 

Distemper

Confirmed:

Clinical signs consistent with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, and;

Four-fold or greater increase in serum antibody titre between acute and convalescent samples, or,

            Detection of CDV in tissue by IFA, or,

Detection of CDV DNA by PCR from whole blood, conjunctival swabs, buffy coat, CSF, or urine sediment, or,

Detection of anti-CDV IgM in serum (unless the dog had received its first CDV vaccine within the past 3 weeks)

 

Cytauxzoonosis

Clinical signs consistent with cytauzoonosis (e.g. anorexia, lethargy, fever, icterus), AND,

            Identification of erythroparasitemia on peripheral blood smears, OR,

            Detection of Detection of Cytauxzoon felis DNA by PCR

 

Leishmaniosis

Clinical signs of leishmoniosis, AND

            High antibody levels from quantitative serology, OR,

            Medium or low antibody levels AND histologically compatible lesions, OR,

            Positive immunohistochemistry or PCR on tissue.

 

Echinococcus multilocularis

            Histological examination followed by PCR confirmation of E. multilocularis

 

Outbreaks, non-specific

Subjective reporting of cluster of animals with similar clinics signs, apart from diseases listed above. Outbreaks may be idiopathic or confirmed diagnoses of pathogens not listed above.

 

EQUINE

Equine influenza

Clinical signs consistent with equine influenza, and;

Detection of equine influenza virus from nasal or nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR, or,

Detection of influenza A antigen by ELISA from nasal or nasopharyngeal swabs or,

Isolation of equine influenza virus from nasal or nasopharyngeal swabs, or,

Detection of 4-fold or greater increase in equine influenza antibody titre between acute and convalescent samples

 

Equine herpesvirus I myeloencephalopathy

Confirmed:

Neurological disease consistent with EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, and;

Detection of 4-fold or greater increase in EHV-1 VN antibody titre between acute and convalescent samples, or,

Detection of CF antibodies in a single serum or CSF sample, or

            Detection of EHV-1 by PCR from nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs or blood, or,

Detection of EHV-1 in neurological tissues by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining

 

Suspected

Neurological disease consistent with EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, and exposure to another horse (or premises) with active or recent EHV-1 infection

 

Equine herpesvirus I abortion

Abortion or stillbirth, and;

Detection of EHV-1 in fetal or placental tissues by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining, or,

Detection of EHV-1 from fetus or placenta by PCR, or,

            Isolation of EHV-1 from fetus or placenta, or

            Histopathologic evidence of EHV-1 infection in fetal/placental tissues

 

Strangles (Streptococcus equi equi infection)

Isolation of Streptococcus equi equi by bacterial culture or detection of S. equi DNA by PCR from nasal swabs, nasopharygeal swabs or washes, guttural pouch or pus from an abscessed lymph node.

 

Rabies           

Positive rabies report from evaluation of brain tissue by an accredited laboratory, based on current testing practices.

 

Equine coronavirus

            Detection of equine coronavirus RNA from feces by PCR in an animal with diarrhea or fever of unknown origin.

 

Equine infectious anemia

            Detection of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus as per the country’s regulations (e.g. cELISA for screening following by AGID for confirmation.

 

Potomac Horse Fever

Clinical signs consistent with Potomac Horse Fever (e.g. colitis, laminitis, fever of unknown origin), and;

Detection of 4-fold of great rise in IFA antibody titre between acute and convalescent serum samples, or,

Detection of N. risticii DNA from blood or feces by PCR.

 

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis

Detection of 1 gM antibodies to EEV in serum, or

Detection of EEE antigen in CNS tissues by immunoperoxidase/immunofluorescence, or

Detection of EEE nucleic acid in CNS tissues by PCR

 

West Nile Encephalitis

Signs of neurological disease, AND,

            Detection of IgM in serum, OR,

            Detection of a 4-fold or greater increase in serum IgG in horses that have not been vaccinated against WNV in the previous 4 weeks, OR,

            Detection of viral RNA in brain, spinal cord of CSF by PCR,OR

            Detection of viral antigen in brain or spinal cord by immunohistochemistry.

 

Equine Viral Arteritis

            Virus isolation, OR,

            Detection of viral RNA by PCR, OR,

            Detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry, OR,

            Identification of a 4-fold or greater risk in serum antibodies in samples taken 21-28d apart.

 

Anthrax

            Isolation of Bacillus anthracis from blood or tissue, OR,

            Fluorescent antibody testing of smears of respiratory secretions, blood or splenic aspirate, OR,

            PCR from body fluids or tissues, OR,

            Identification of chains of large gram positive rods with non-staining central spores in an animal with sudden death or clinical signs consistent with anthrax.

 

Outbreaks, non-specific

Subjective reporting of cluster of animals with similar clinics signs, apart from diseases listed above. Outbreaks may be idiopathic or confirmed diagnoses of pathogens not listed above.

 

Other

Identification of a noteworthy infectious disease.